Bioscaffold infused with growth factor may yield human biologic joint replacements
James Cook, DVM
Posted on the ORTHOSuperSite January 7, 2011
Investigators from University of Missouri and Columbia University say a proof of concept study that created biological joints in animals leads them to believe that biological joint replacement for humans is not far behind, according to a University of Missouri press release.
Ulrich Nöth; Andre F. Steinert; Rocky S. Tuan
07/03/2008; Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2008;4(7):371-380. © 2008 Nature Publishing Group
Despite the high prevalence and morbidity of osteoarthritis (OA), an effective treatment for this disease is currently lacking. Restoration of the diseased articular cartilage in patients with OA is, therefore, a challenge of considerable appeal to researchers and clinicians. Techniques that cause multipotent adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into cells of the chondrogenic lineage have led to a variety of experimental strategies to investigate whether MSCs instead of chondrocytes can be used for the regeneration and maintenance of articular cartilage. MSC-based strategies should provide practical advantages for the patient with OA.
Stem Cells Therapy
The Institute of Regenerative & Molecular Orthopaedics
What are stem cells?
Although stem cells sounds innovative and cutting edge, this therapy has been around for quite some time. In the past, these cells were very difficult and expensive to procure. With newer techniques and equipment, stem cells can easily be obtained and concentrated by a simple office procedure.
Stem cells are in people of all ages. Stem cells are the repairmen of the body. The most common is known as hematopoietic stem cells (HSC-CD 34+). The type of adult stem cell that is most often seen in research as being associated with tissue repair is a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). These cells usually travel to the injured areas via the blood stream. If the injured area has a poor blood supply, this is called an area of hypoxia or low oxygen content. Areas of hypoxia include the joints, meniscus tissue, rotator cuff and other tendon injuries. These are areas that typically do not heal on their own. The body is not able to get enough of the repair cells to these injured areas. Since there is a poor blood supply in this area, the body has trouble sensing an injury is present.If the injury is not that severe, we are usually able to treat the area with platelet rich plasma. We are in a sense mimicking a blood supply in that the platelets sense the injury, release growth factors which than signal the body to send in various types of stem cells to repair the body in this area.
From Medscape General Medicine > Departments > Review Articles
Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Musculoskeletal Tissues
Edward J. Caterson, BS, Leon J. Nesti, PhD, Todd Albert, MD, Keith Danielson, PhD, Rocky Tuan, PhD, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Mesenchymal stem cells are a rare population of undifferentiated cells, isolated from adult tissue sources, that have the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal lineages, including bone, fat, muscle, cartilage, tendon, and marrow stroma. These cell populations may be expanded in culture and subsequently permitted to differentiate into the desired lineage. This directed differentiation may be reached by the application of bioactive molecules, specific growth factors, and signaling molecules. Understanding the functional potential of these cells and the signaling mechanisms underlying their differentiation should lead to innovative protocols for clinical orthopaedic interventions. Clinically applicable techniques to isolate, expand, and reimplant these autogenous cells will become part of the repertoire of orthopaedic therapy. In the presence of extrinsic signaling molecules, provided by both the clinician and the local cellular environment, the intrinsic multipotential nature of the stem cells may be realized for applications such as the replacement of bone graft for segmental defects, nonunions, and spinal fusions. Additional applications may include treatment of full-thickness articular defects and articular resurfacing by site-specific delivery of stem cells. The ultimate goal is directed cellular regeneration of damaged or diseased musculoskeletal tissue. Currently, the limitation is our knowledge and ability to direct this differentiation, but with further study molecular orthopaedic interventions should become a reality. [MedGenMed, MedGenMed, February 5, 2001. © Medscape, Inc.]